Publications Pertinent to the Subject of Weather Modification

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Bangsund & Leistritz 2009 - Economic Impacts of Cloud Seeding on Agricultural Crops in North Dakota

Cardno ENTRIX, 2011 - Geochemistry and Impacts of Silver Iodide Use in Cloud Seeding

DeFelice, T.P., et al., 2013 - Extra area effects of cloud seeding — An updated assessment

Hunter 2007 - Optimizing Cloud Seeding for Water and Energy in California

Johnson 1985 - An Evaluation of the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project: 1976-1982

Los Angeles County, 2009 - County of Los Angeles Weather Modification Project - Final Mitigated Negative Declaration

O'Dowd, 2012 - Contrails Versus Chemtrails - An interesting take on aircraft ice crystal plumes

Orville, Harold D. et al., 2004 - A Response by the Weather Modification Association to the National Research Council's Report Titled "Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research"

Reynolds et al., 2017 - Enhancing Winter Orographic Snowfall in the West Through Cloud Seeding

Sacramento Municipal Utility District, 2017 - Sacramento Municipal Utility District El Dorado Cloud Seeding Program Expansion - Initial Study and Mitigated Negative Declaration

Santa Barbara County, 2013 - Santa Barbara County and Twitchell Reservoir Cloud Seeding Program CEQA Final Mitigated Negative Declaration

Smith et al., 1992 - A Target·Control Analysis of Wheat Yield Data for the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project Region

Smith et al., 1997 - An Exploratory Analysis of Crop Hail Insurance Data for Evidence of Cloud Seeding Effects in North Dakota

Smith et al., 2004 - Exploratory Analysis of Climatic Raingage Data for Evidence of Effects of the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project on Rainfall in the Target Area

US Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation, 2010 - Reclamation - Managing Water in the West - Environmental Assessment for the Walker River Basin Cloud Seeding Project

US Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation, 2010 - Finding of No Significant Impact Walker River Basin Cloud Seeding Project

Wise 2005 - Precipitation Evaluation of the North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP)

Additional Resources for Purchase


Guidelines for Operational Hail Suppression Programs, ASCE/EWRI 39-15 describes the process for designing, conducting, and evaluating operations to suppress the formation of hail. Hail is the product of vigorous, deep convection in the atmosphere. The most common approaches to hail suppression involve seeding a storm with nucleating agents using airborne, ground-based, or rocket and artillery delivery systems.  Click Here to Purchase


Standard Practice for the Design, Conduct, and Evaluation of Operational Precipitation Enhancement Projects, ASCE/EWRI 42-17 provides an introduction to the history and technology of cloud seeding and describes the scientific basis for examining the efficiency of both natural precipitation and human-induced weather modifications. This standard covers design aspects of precipitation enhancement projects, including project scope, seeding agents, targeting and delivery methods, meteorological data, deployment of equipment, legal issues, and environmental concerns. Operational issues such as manuals, personnel requirements, decision-making hierarchy, communications, safety, and public relations, are considered. Finally, the components of project evaluation, including project design constraints, evaluation measures, and dissemination of results, are surveyed. Click Here to Purchase


Manuals of Practice MOP 81 (2016) 3rd Edition, supplies the practical details for implementing a cloud seeding project to enhance precipitation efficiency. This revised edition incorporates pertinent information on the background, science, and practice of weather modification developed in the last 10 years. Click Here to Purchase


Standard Practice for the Design and Operation of Supercooled Fog Dispersal Projects, ANSI/ASCE/EWRI 44-13 presents guidelines for programs aimed at dispersing supercooled fog. This standard describes the process through which supercooled fog dispersal operations should be designed, conducted, and encompasses topics such as project scope, delivery methods, seeding agent selection, targeting and delivery, and suspension criteria. Click Here to Purchase

If you do not wish to purchase these publications online, a PDF order form can be downloaded for mail-in ordering. Click Here to Download